Earth structure, plate tectonics theory: convection currents and sea-floor spreading. Evidence: continental drift and palaeomagnetism.

Destructive, constructive and conservative plate margins. Processes: seismicity and vulcanicity. Associated landforms: young fold mountains, rift valleys, ocean ridges, deep sea trenches and island arcs.

Hot spots associated with plumes of magma and their relationship to plate movement.

Variations in the type and frequency of volcanic activity in relation to types of plate margin and types of lava.

Forms of intrusive activity – dykes, sills, batholiths.

Minor forms of extrusive activity – geysers, hot springs and boiling mud.

Major forms of extrusive activity – types of volcanoes.

Two case studies of recent (ideally within the last 30 years) volcanic events should be undertaken from contrasting areas of the world. In each case, the following should be examined:
• the nature of the volcanic hazard
• the impact of the event
• management of the hazard and responses to the event.

The causes and main characteristics of earthquakes: focus and epicentre; seismic waves and earthquake measurement.
Tsunamis – characteristics and causes.

Two case studies of recent (ideally within the last 30 years) seismic events should be undertaken from contrasting areas of the world. In each case, the following should be examined:
• the nature of the seismic hazard;
• the impact of the event;
• management of the hazard and responses to the event.